Kongunadu Research Journal https://krjournal.com/index.php/krj <p style="text-align: justify;">Kongunadu Research Journal (KRJ) (ISSN No.: 2349-2694) aims to publish high-quality papers with a specific focus on learning within their specified focus that are accessible and of interest to educators, researchers and academicians. It is a scholarly online, open access, peer-reviewed, interdisciplinary journal focusing on theories, methods and applications in Mathematics, Biology, Science, Technology and other related fields. KRJ invites authors to submit original and unpublished work that communicates current research on these fields.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> eleyon en-US Kongunadu Research Journal 2349-2694 Sacred groves – an ancient tradition of nature conservation of sthalavrikshas in coimbatore, tamil nadu, india https://krjournal.com/index.php/krj/article/view/504 <p>In India sthalavrikshas worship in temples was a religrous practice. In Tamil Nadu almost every temple is associated with a plant or tree connected to the history and mythology of the temple and or deity. The worshipper who comes to the temple attains a healty spiritua; enlighten. Sthalavrikshas is a natural tree found in the temple site brfore construction of the temple. The present investigation was carried out in coimbatore district to enumerate the sthalavrikshas associate with temple by field observation method. During the field visit temples were frequently visited and surveyed for the sthalavrikshas from the month of December 2019 - February 2020. The survey was conduced at 46 ancient temples of the coimbatore district and revelated the occurrence of 19 sthalavrikshas species were observed in different area of coimbatore district. These sacred plants are worshiped by the local people for getting the blessing of health and wealth by positive powers of nature. Sthalavrikshas are germplasm reservers and an indicator of socio-cultural conservation strategy. It is concluded that the Sthalavriksha worship is an age old practice, myths, beliefs and floklore play a major role in the exsistance of Sthalavrikshas worship and this customms help in plant conservation.</p> Rekka Raja Nirubama Kumar Suganya B Rubavathigokila M Felix Daniel Copyright (c) 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 8 2 1 7 10.26524/krj.2021.13 Documentation of medicinal plants used by the traditional healers, mayannur forest, thrissur district, kerala, india https://krjournal.com/index.php/krj/article/view/505 <p>The study was carried out to document the medicinal plants used by the traditional healers in Mayannur Forest, Thrissur District, Kerala, India. In the present study, 107 plant species belonging to 46 families were documented in the Mayannur forest, Kerala. The informants of an age group ranging from 50-80 were selected for collecting data of the plants in the forest. The medicinal plants such as herbs (36%), shrub (19%), trees (27%)&nbsp; and climbers (18%) were mainly used by traditional healers for the treatment of fever, wound healing, skin diseases and menstrual problems. <em>Saraca</em> <em>asoca</em> was mainly in the traditional medicines to cure diseases and for treating menstrual problems. Medicinal plants used by the traditional healers were documented along with their scientific name, common name and medicinal uses. The present study shows that, the plant material mainly used was leaves for the treatment of diseases. Among the 107 plant species Rare Endangered Threatened (RET) plant species were also documented. Documentation of knowledge and conservation of the endangered plants helped for the sustainable development.</p> Soja S Saradha M Copyright (c) 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 8 2 8 26 10.26524/krj.2021.14 Taxonomic identity and ecological status of two rare orchids from southern western ghats, india https://krjournal.com/index.php/krj/article/view/506 <p>An assessment has been made to identify the rare, endemic and threatened species in the Velliangiri hills of Southern Western Ghats, India. During field explorations, two rare species of terrestrial saprophytic orchids were collected. On critical appraisal and authentication of herbarium specimens, they were identified as <em>Aphyllorchis montana</em> Rchb. f. and<em> Epipogium roseum</em> (D. Don) Lindl. The present paper deals with their correct taxonomic identity, distribution and ecological status.</p> Aravindhan V Rajendran A Copyright (c) 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 8 2 27 30 10.26524/krj.2021.15 Antimicrobial activities of certain seaweeds from muddy shore places of kerala https://krjournal.com/index.php/krj/article/view/507 <p>A study was carried out to reveal the growth inhibitory effect of methanol crude extract (MCE) and methanol supernatant extract (MSE) of sea weeds: 1) <em>Gracillaria corticata, </em>2)<em> Hypnea musciforms, </em>3)<em> Gelidium micropterum</em> and 4) <em>Hypnea valentiae</em>&nbsp; against six bacterial pathogens, 1) <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa, </em>2)<em> Bacillus licheniformis, </em>3)<em> Serratia marcescens, </em>4<em>) Aeromonas hydrophila, </em>5)<em> Acinetobacter baumanii, </em>6)<em> Escherichia coli</em> and two fungal strains, 1)<em> Aspergillus niger </em>and 2)<em> Candida albicans </em>respectively<em>.</em> Well diffusion method using zone of inhibition as indicator for growth inhibition was adopted. The results showed that methanol extracts of seaweeds <em>viz.</em>, <em>Gracillaria corticata, Hypnea musciforms,</em> and <em>Hypnea valentiae </em>prevented the growth of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The effect on growth was observed as zone of inhibition, the diameter of which was indicated in the units of a millimeter. The growth of the bacterium, <em>Serratia marcescens</em> was affected by methanol supernatant extract of the three types of seaweeds, <em>Gracillaria corticata, Hypnea musciforms,</em> and <em>Hypnea valentiae, </em>and by the methanolic crude extract of <em>Hypnea musciforms </em>and <em>Hypnea valentiae.</em> However, the growths of other species of bacteria were not controlled by either of the extracts of the seaweeds except, <em>Bacillus licheniformis </em>which was controlled by only <em>Gracillaria corticata. </em>The growth of fungi: <em>Aspergillus niger</em> and <em>Candida albicans</em> were inhibited by the methanol extracts of <em>Gracillaria corticata. </em>Between the two forms of methanolic extracts i.e., supernatant and crude, the efficiency of the supernatant extract was greater than that of crude one. Further, among the three types of seaweeds which showed an effect on the growth of microbes, the level of the zone of inhibition caused by <em>Gracillaria corticata </em>was statistically higher than that of the other two,<em> Hypnea musciforms,</em> and <em>Hypnea valentiae.</em></p> Selvaraju Raja Karuppiah Kannan Kalamani Velmurugan Samynathan M Ephsy K Davis Copyright (c) 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 8 2 31 38 10.26524/krj.2021.16 Sequel outcome of automobile sector on account of covid – 19 through technical analysis https://krjournal.com/index.php/krj/article/view/508 <p>The COVID – 19 pandemic has deteriorated multiple facets of the stable functioning of economies of most countries. Social restrictions associated with the immediate response to the pandemic has curtailed dynamic functioning of many industries that buttress the economic development of countries. Performance of automotive industries was expected to nosedive following the travel restrictions. One of the major sources of profit for the automotive industries in India is their consumer base in countries like U. K, Germany, and China etc. Severity of the pandemic in these countries entailed trade regulations that propelled a negative trend in the market growth of Indian automotive industries. But the economy of automotive sector of India was saved from a free fall by the countering effect of the domestic demand in private transportation. This paper presents the technical analysis on the Maruti Suzuki Private Limited to measure the stock movement of the Automobile sector in the Indian Stock Market.</p> Vivek Prabu M Dharani K S Copyright (c) 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 8 2 39 43 10.26524/krj.2021.17 A phyto pharmacological review of medicinaly important plant solena amplexcaulis (cucurbitaceae) https://krjournal.com/index.php/krj/article/view/509 <p><em>Solena amplexicaulis</em>, (Cucurbitaceae) commonly known as the creeping cucumber, native to tropical southern Asia. It is generally prescribed for wound healing by the local healers in western districts of Tamil Nadu. The fruits, leaves, roots and shoots have used as food and it is traditionally used as astringent, appetizer, carminative, cardiotonic, digestive, diuretic, expectorant, invigorating, purgative and stimulant. It have lot of medicinal uses such as antioxidant antidiabetic, antibacterial etc. The available reports on physicochemical, anti-microbial activity, anti-oxidant activity and pharmacological value of <em>Solena amplexicaulis</em> are discussed in this review.</p> Krishnamoorthy Karthika Vimal Priya Subramanian Copyright (c) 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 8 2 44 48 10.26524/krj.2021.18 Studies on the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal association in the plant species of theerthamalai hills, western ghats of dharmapuri district tamilnadu, india https://krjournal.com/index.php/krj/article/view/510 <p>The present study to investigate the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal root colonization and spore population of some medicinal plants species at Theerthamalai hills Western Ghats of Dharmapuri district, Tamil Nadu. Root and rhizosphere soil samples were collected during the month of August, 2010-March, 2011. From the surface to 20 cm depth as well as pH were also measured. Totally 42 plant species belonging to 24 families recovered Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal spore and root colonization. The results of the present study arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal spore population in the rhizosphere soil and root colonization of all the plant species. The maximum spore population was found in the rhizosphere soil samples of the plant species <em>Leucas aspera </em>(386/100g of soil) which belongs to the family Lamiaceae and lowest spore population was observed in the&nbsp; <em>Wrightia tinctoria </em>(117/100g of soil) belongs to Apocyanaceae. The maximum AM fungal infection was found in roots of <em>Cassia auriculata </em>(63%) belongs to the family Fabaceae, while the lowest AM fungal association was found in the root of <em>Achyranthes aspera </em>(17%) belongs to the family Amaranthaceae. A total of 24 AM fungal species belonging to 4 genera were recorded from the rhizosphere soil samples of this study region. Among these genus <em>Glomus </em>was dominant had seen in rhizosphere soil samples in all the medicinal plant species.</p> Santhoshkumar S Devaraj D Copyright (c) 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 8 2 49 60 10.26524/krj.2021.19 Triangular intuitionistic fuzzy sequencing problem https://krjournal.com/index.php/krj/article/view/511 <p>In this paper, we discuss different types of fuzzy sequencing problem with Triangular Intuitionistic Fuzzy Number. Algorithm is given for different types of fuzzy sequencing problem to obtain an optimal sequence, minimum total elapsed time and idle time for machines.&nbsp; To illustrate this, numerical examples are provided.</p> Radhakrishnan S Saikeerthana D Copyright (c) 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 8 2 61 68 10.26524/krj.2021.20 A study on in vitro antioxidant activity of aqueous seed extract of sesbania sesban (l) merr. https://krjournal.com/index.php/krj/article/view/512 <p>The present study was done to investigate the <em>in vitro</em> antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of <em>Sesbania sesban</em> seeds. The assays such as DPPH, Chelation, ferrous ion, ABTS, Superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical assay, FRAP assay and total antioxidant activity were done to assess the antioxidant potential of the seed extract. The extract was tested at a concentration range of 100 – 500 μg/ml for all the assays and the values were compared with a standard. The results obtained showed that the radical scavenging activity was in a dose dependent manner and found to increase with increase in concentration of the extract. The IC50 value was calculated for the assays and tabulated for inference. Different assays revealed different levels of radical scavenging potential of the extract and exhibited as a better antioxidant source for therapeutic applications.</p> Kathiravan S Shwetha V Kalava Copyright (c) 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 8 2 69 74 10.26524/krj.2021.21