Kongunadu Research Journal https://krjournal.com/index.php/krj <p style="text-align: justify;">Kongunadu Research Journal (KRJ) (ISSN No.: 2349-2694) aims to publish high-quality papers with a specific focus on learning within their specified focus that are accessible and of interest to educators, researchers and academicians. It is a scholarly online, open access, peer-reviewed, interdisciplinary journal focusing on theories, methods and applications in Mathematics, Biology, Science, Technology and other related fields. KRJ invites authors to submit original and unpublished work that communicates current research on these fields.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> eleyon en-US Kongunadu Research Journal 2349-2694 Documentation of angiosperms and ferns of Lamb’s Rock Conoor, Nilgiris District, Tamil Nadu https://krjournal.com/index.php/krj/article/view/623 <p>The documentation of the angiosperms and ferns study was carried out in Lamb’s rock, Conoor, Nilgiris Districts, Tamil Nadu. It has been undertaken during January 2022 to March 2022 and it has resulted in providing information on 55 plant species. In the present study, 42 angiosperms and 13 ferns plant species belonging 32 families were documented in the lamb’s rock Tamil Nadu. The medicinal plants such as herbs (60%), shrub (22%), trees (60%), and climber (8%) were mainly used by traditional healers for the treatment of fever, cough, wound healing, and skin disease. <em>Zehneria maysorensis</em> was mainly used for menstrual problem. Medicinal plants and its scientific name, common name, medicinal uses and diversity status were documented.</p> Sevvel S Sivatharshini T Vimal Priya S Karthika K Copyright (c) 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 10 2 1 14 10.26524/krj.2023.10 Isolation and identification of histamine-producing bacteria in frigate tuna Auxis thazard https://krjournal.com/index.php/krj/article/view/624 <p>Histamine is the most common cause of human foodborne illness and is found to be associated with the consumption of fish products especially in scombroid fishes containing unusual levels of histamine. In this study, histamine-producing bacteria in the Frigate Tuna, <em>Auxis thazard</em> samples of the local Ukkadam fish market of Coimbatore were investigated. Among 12 isolates 4 were found to be prominent histamine producing bacteria. An automated microbiology system called VITEK, a biochemical test analyzer was used for the identification of bacteria, and four isolates were tentatively identified as <em>Sphingomonas paucimobilis</em>; <em>Proteus vulgaris</em>; <em>Providencia rustigianii</em>, and <em>Neisseria zoodegmatis</em>. The isolation of histamine-producing bacteria from the muscle emphasizes the possible importance of muscle as a reservoir for bacterial contamination. The study suggests that the practice of more hygienic and sanitary conditions during the handling and processing of fish is required to minimize the contamination of such histamine-producing bacteria.</p> Suryaprahasan Raja Anju Alagiri Anjana Ashok Janani Parthiban Velayutham Meiyalagan Copyright (c) 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 10 2 15 20 10.26524/krj.2023.11 An overview of some pharmacologically relevant therapeutic plants from Kerala's sacred groves https://krjournal.com/index.php/krj/article/view/625 <p>In Kerala's native culture, sacred groves are referred to as "Kavu" and have long been used as archives for traditional knowledge and biodiversity. Many medicinal plants with strong pharmacological properties can be found in these distinctive habitats, and they have historically provided local populations with medicine. Studying the pharmacological significance of plants from Kerala's sacred groves will help us to gain a better understanding of the value of nature-based therapies in a time when both natural resources and traditional knowledge systems are more crucial than ever. This comprehensive review article seeks to study wide variety of medicinal plants present in Kerala's sacred groves, including <em>Murdannia pauciflora</em>, <em>Osbeckia muralis</em> and <em>Indoneesiella echioides</em>, offering light on their historical use and pharmacological qualities that have been proven.</p> Athira Malavika J Thenmozhi K Copyright (c) 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 10 2 21 30 10.26524/krj.2023.12 An in vitro anticancerous and antioxidant potentials of the brown seaweed Sargassum polycystum C. Agardh https://krjournal.com/index.php/krj/article/view/626 <p>Discovering new therapeutic agents for cancer treatment remains a significant issue in the search for a cure as, cancer is the preeminent reason of death worldwide. The majority of compounds used as chemotherapeutic medications to treat cancer have been found and isolated in plants for their synthetic derivatives. Biomaterials made from marine algae are crucial components of several medications used for the treatment of cancer and other diseases, due to their diverse bioactivities. The goal of the current study was to assess the marine algae <em>Sargassum polycystum</em> antioxidant capacity and anticancer efficacy against the A549 cell line. The antioxidants are crucial for preventing oxidative stress-related damage (OS). OS has been linked to the pathogenesis of several illnesses, including cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. Marine algae-derived natural compounds shield cells by reducing the effects of oxidative stress. From the algal extract DPPH radical scavenging activity in a concentration–dependent manner with maximum scavenging activity (IC50 value = 27.7±1.3µg/ml) was carried out. The in vitro anticancerous activity against the A549 Lung cancer cell line revealed that the IC50 value of <em>Sargassum polycystum</em> was 13±1.5 µg/ml. Thus we can deduce that the secondary metabolites from marine algae can advance with a substantial range of anti-cancerous medicaments.</p> Aleena B. Eluvathingal Amitha T V Carolin Joe Rosario J Vimal Priya S Copyright (c) 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 10 2 31 34 10.26524/krj.2023.13 Study on phytochemical properties and antioxidant activities of marine macroalgae Padina tetrastromatica Hauck https://krjournal.com/index.php/krj/article/view/627 <p>An abundance of beneficial plant life can be found in aquatic areas, particularly in marine ecosystems. These resources have, therefore, been in use for hundreds of years. Seaweeds have long been closely associated with human life as a source of food, fodder, fine chemicals, fertilizer and pharmaceutically significant drugs. Algae are an important group of organisms with the largest source of biogenic compounds. They are found to possess significant antioxidant and phytochemical activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate the phytochemical and antioxidant activity of active compounds present in the methanol extract of the brown algae, <em>Padina tetrastromatica</em> Hauck. The antioxidant activity of extracts was evaluated by DPPH scavenging activity and Hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity assays. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, saponins, carbohydrates, proteins and phenolic compounds etc.</p> Amitha T V Aleena B. Eluvathingal Carolin Joe Rosario J Vimal Priya S Copyright (c) 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 10 2 35 39 10.26524/krj.2023.14 Documentation of some of the major medicinal plants used by the irula people in Palamalai hills of Coimbatore district, Tamil nadu, India https://krjournal.com/index.php/krj/article/view/628 <p>Our traditional health practices rely heavily on medicinal herbs. Protecting biological diversity requires understanding living things and being aware of how to protect them. A preliminary study on the diversity of medicinal plants was carried out at Palamalai Hills, Nikenpalayam, Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu. This study examined his 36 most useful medicinal herbs with high healing potential. Herbal medicines are used by the Irula people to treat red rash, diabetes, jaundice, asthma, fertility, infertility, hay fever, and other illnesses. Scientific knowledge is required to cultivate the above-mentioned medicinal plants to prevent most diseases and both to develop and protect natural resources.</p> Vimal Priya S Karthika K Amitha T V Aleena. B. Eluvathingal Yaazhini J Ramachandran J Copyright (c) 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 10 2 40 47 10.26524/krj.2023.15 A comprehensive review on the ethnopharmacological and therapeutic perspectives of psychoactive plants https://krjournal.com/index.php/krj/article/view/629 <p>Psychoactive plants have been an integral part of human societies for centuries, serving various cultural, spiritual, and therapeutic purposes. This review explores the ethnopharmacological and therapeutic aspects of psychoactive plants. The present study emphasizes existing knowledge on the psychoactive constituents and pharmacological properties of certain plants, shedding light on their psychoactive effects and potential therapeutic applications. Additionally, the present review examines the challenges associated with the use of psychoactive plants, including legal and ethical considerations&nbsp; by amalgamating ethnopharmacological insights with modern scientific perspectives, the current study explores comprehensive understanding of the multifaceted nature of psychoactive plants, emphasizing the need for balanced approaches that respect cultural heritage while ensuring safety and promoting responsible use of green medicine in contemporary society.</p> Malavika J Athira Thenmozhi K Copyright (c) 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 10 2 48 52 10.26524/krj.2023.16 Evaluation of air quality through various bioparameters near Valankulam lake, Coimbatore https://krjournal.com/index.php/krj/article/view/630 <p>Road and bridge construction close to lakes generates a lot of dust, which pollutes the air in that area. This is about the negative effects of vegetation activities. Some have the tolerance capacity, while others do not, leading&nbsp;to adverse effects. The study focuses on the air pollution tolerance index (APTI) of trees near Valankulam Lake in Coimbatore. Physiological and biochemical factors were employed to determine the APTI. The leaves of 19 trees were collected for the study and tested for ascorbic acid, total chlorophyll concentration, leaf pH, and relative water content. <em>Albizzia lebbeck</em> was found to have the highest tolerance value (88.81), followed by <em>Ficus religiosa</em>, <em>Bougainvillaea spectabilis</em>, <em>Nerium oleander</em>, <em>Ricinus communis</em>, <em>Thevetia peruviana</em>, <em>Azadirachta indica</em> and <em>Tamarindus indica</em>.&nbsp; <em>Tectona grandis</em> (8.01) is the most vulnerable to pollution, followed by <em>Pongamia pinnata</em>, <em>Vitex negundo</em> and <em>Tecoma stans</em>. According to the findings, the tolerant species can serve as a source, while the sensitive plants serve as a signal of pollution.</p> Ramachandran B Yaazhini J Danya U Vimal Priya S Copyright (c) 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 10 2 53 60 10.26524/krj.2023.17 Assessment of traditional ethnomedicinal plants species in Coimbatore region – a short review https://krjournal.com/index.php/krj/article/view/631 <p>Since ancient times, medicinal plants have been widely employed worldwide to treat medical conditions in humans. Knowledge of ethnobotany can provide a great deal of information about plants and their traditional uses. This study discusses the ethnobotanical survey of plants undertaken in the Coimbatore district. For this study, information on plants was gathered, including their scientific name, family name, habit, parts used and medicinal characteristics. 402 plant species from 93 families and 282 genera were studied during the review. Euphorbiaceae and Fabaceae are the families with the most species, each having twenty. Asclepdiaceae is next with seventeen species, followed by Poaceae and Leguminaceae with sixteen each, Asteraceae with fourteen species and Rubiaceae with thirteen species. With 140 species, herbs constitute the largest portion of the habit, followed by shrubs (111 species), trees (98 species) and climbers (50 species), in that order. For sustainable development, it is crucial to record traditional knowledge. It also makes it easier for researchers to obtain plant samples for additional study. Adopting appropriate conservation tactics, including managed grazing and community replanting, can support the long-term usage of medicinal plants.</p> Ramachandran B Yaazhini J Danya U Vimal Priya S Copyright (c) 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 10 2 61 80 10.26524/krj.2023.18 FSM and RRU-net module for Image Splicing Forgery Detection https://krjournal.com/index.php/krj/article/view/632 <p>Nowadays, it can be difficult to tell whether an image is real or fake. Thanks to technological advancements, an image can be altered or falsified in a matter of seconds. Finding these forgeries has grown to be a major problem in the modern world. Although an image could be crucial evidence, it will be useless if it is faked. Methods for distinguishing between pictures that have been edited and those that have been computer-generated must be developed. In order to identify these forgeries, we plan to create an Image Forgery Detection Model that combines FSM and RRU-Net. Residual propagation and residual feedback are two distinct approaches that are combined in RRU-Net, which stands for Ringed Residual Structure and Network Architecture. To find long-distance dependencies, the Feature Similarity Module, or FSM, will be employed. Our suggested system combines FSM and RRU-Net to improve accuracy. We will extract the differences in the picture attributes between the modified and unmodified parts using image patches of different sizes. Once the forged area has been identified, the final region will be shown in color. The method will prove useful in the future for identifying different types of spliced image frauds that appear on different social media platforms.</p> Velmurugan S Saravana Moorthy R Subramanian K Angel S Copyright (c) 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 10 2 81 88 10.26524/krj.2023.19