Kongunadu Research Journal https://krjournal.com/index.php/krj <p style="text-align: justify;">Kongunadu Research Journal (KRJ) (ISSN No.: 2349-2694) aims to publish high-quality papers with a specific focus on learning within their specified focus that are accessible and of interest to educators, researchers and academicians. It is a scholarly online, open access, peer-reviewed, interdisciplinary journal focusing on theories, methods and applications in Mathematics, Biology, Science, Technology and other related fields. KRJ invites authors to submit original and unpublished work that communicates current research on these fields.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> eleyon en-US Kongunadu Research Journal 2349-2694 Status and diversity of bird species in government college campus in chittur of palakkad, kerala https://krjournal.com/index.php/krj/article/view/412 <p>A study on the status and Diversity of birds in Government College Campus, Chittur, Palakkad, Kerala was conducted from July, 2018 to February, 2019. A total of 35 birds species belonging to 32 genera, 26 families and 9 orders were encountered. The results of the present study confirm the findings of previous studies that local vegetation and habitat characteristics such as densities of shrubs and mixed vegetation in the Govt. College Campus, Chittur influenced bird species richness and<br>diversity.</p> Venkitachalam R Varsha Vijayan Copyright (c) 2020-04-15 2020-04-15 7 1 1 4 10.26524/krj.2020.1 A study on the growth characteristics of pleurotus sajor-caju with varying substrate sterilization methods and days of spawn maturity https://krjournal.com/index.php/krj/article/view/413 <p>The research work carried out investigated the influence of various substrate sterilization methods and days of spawn maturity on the growth characteristics of Pleurotus sajor-caju, grey oyster mushroom. The paddy straw substrate was sterilized by various sterilization methods such as chemical sterilization, boiling<br>water sterilization and steam sterilization. The spawn of the mushroom produced were used at three different days of maturity viz. 25 days, 35 days and 45 days. The substrate and spawn inoculated beds were maintained at defined environmental conditions in the mushroom cultivation chamber and the growth<br>performance were monitored and the characteristics were recorded. The study revealed that the steam sterilized substrate and the 35 days old spawn gave the maximum yield compared to the beds inoculated with substrates sterilized with other two methods of sterilization and spawn of 25 days and 45 days old. The<br>results gave a reliable information regarding the preference of the substrate sterilization method and the days of spawn maturity for the cultivation of the Pleurotus sajor-caju, grey oyster mushroom.</p> Kathiravan S Krishnakumari S Copyright (c) 2020-04-15 2020-04-15 7 1 5 10 10.26524/krj.2020.2 The study on freshwater fish biodiversity of ukkadam (periyakulam) and valankulam lake from coimbatore district, tamil nadu, india https://krjournal.com/index.php/krj/article/view/414 <p>Wetlands of India preserve a rich variety of fish species. Globally wetlands as well as fauna and flora diversity are affected due to increase in anthropogenic activities. The present investigation deals with the fish bio-diversity of selected major wetlands Periyakulam famously called Ukkadam Lake, Singanallur Lake and<br>Sulur Lake of Coimbatore district fed by Noyyal River. Due to improper management of these lentic wetlands water bodies around Coimbatore district by using certain manures, insecticides in agricultural practices in and around these selected areas has polluted the land and these fresh waters creating hazards for major<br>vertebrate fishes which are rich source of food and nutrition, an important and delicious food of man. The results of the present investigation reveals the occurrence of 19 fish species belonging to 5 order, 8 families 18 species recorded from the Ukkadam wetland followed by Singanallur wetland with 5 different orders 7 different families and 14 species. Ichthyofaunal diversity of Sulur wetland compressed of 6 families with 14 species. The order Cypriniformes was found dominant followed by Perciformes, Ophicephalidae, Siluriformes and Cyprinodontiformes species in Ukkadam and Singanallur wetland lakes while in Sulur it was recorded as Cyprinidae &gt; Cichlida &gt; Ophiocephalidae &gt; Anabantidae &gt; Bagridae &gt; Heteropneustidae. This study on the freshwater fish species diversity of these wetlands would help in explore the fish fauna status and estimate the factors that may need rectification for fish conservation and management.</p> Dharani T Ajith G Rajeshkumar S Copyright (c) 2020-04-15 2020-04-15 7 1 11 18 10.26524/krj.2020.3 Structural evaluation and insilico study of proteins of asterias rubens - “starfish as new source to marine proteins” https://krjournal.com/index.php/krj/article/view/415 <p>Marine sources have received great attention recently; research on marine-derived molecules has discovered new bioactive compounds with vital properties increasing their applicability as nutraceuticals in the food and supplement industries. Most notably Hippocrates, the “father of modern medicine”, is recorded<br>as describing the therapeutic effects of various marine invertebrates and their constituents on human health.Astreias is an important marine of the family Asteriidae known for its variety of medicinal properties. Functional characterization of a protein sequence is one of the most frequent problems in biology. This task is usually facilitated by accurate three-dimensional (3-D) structure of the protein. The number of protein sequences that can be modeled, as well as the accuracy of the prediction, is increasing steadily because of the growth and number of known protein sequences and structures as well as improvements in the modeling software. It is currently possible to model, with useful accuracy. Significant parts of approximately one half of all known protein sequences. This research report deliver an innovative summary of bioinformatics study of Asterias rubens with emphasis on the current development and future directions, which shall provide tools and resources necessary to understand and uphold advances in this important field. The aim of the present study, 10 proteins of Asterias rubens were analysed using bioinformatics tools. Structural prediction and functional characterization of proteins of Asterias rubens were done using Expasy Protparm server, 3D structure was done using SWISS MODEL. The important enzymes present in Asterias rubens involved Reproductive function and proper growth and development of human body.</p> Rubalakshmi G Vidya M Nirubama K Prabhakaran S Mehanathan A Copyright (c) 2020-04-15 2020-04-15 7 1 19 27 10.26524/krj.2020.4 Molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis of suaeda maritima from parangipettai coastal areas, southeast coast of india https://krjournal.com/index.php/krj/article/view/416 <p>Conventional taxonomy is limited with delineating species and controversies arise with DNA barcoding based identifications. Hence, an alternative supporting approach is very much needed to identify species and differentiate them within the species based on the genetic material. 18S rRNA genes have been particularly helpful in analyzing phylogeny at the species level. In addition, bioinformatics which represents a new, growing area of science uses computational approaches to answer biological questions. Salt tolerant costal salt marsh plant of Suaeda maritima was selected for 18s rRNA sequencing to solve the ambiguity in its<br>species level identification. Similarity search of study species shared 99% similarity with 5 species of Atriplex canescens clone s128, Atriplex torreyi var. griffithsii clone p508, Spinacia oleracea, Oenothera laciniata clone,Beta vulgaris. Phylogenetic tree infer that S.maritima is closely related to Spinacia oleracea and Oenothera laciniata. Atriplex canescens (fourwing saltbush), Atriplex torreyi and Phaulothamnus spinescens, Celosia argentea found to be closely related and are in one group. Hence, this study result clearly shows thus study species evaluated from angiosperm and provides key step in understanding the evolution of salt tolerance in angiosperm.</p> Anbarasi G Vishnupriya B Copyright (c) 2020-04-15 2020-04-15 7 1 28 34 10.26524/krj.2020.5 Bio-assisted synthesis of ferric sulphide nanoparticles for agricultural applications https://krjournal.com/index.php/krj/article/view/417 <p>Herein, Ferric sulphide nanoparticles were prepared by co-precipitation (green synthesis) method.Structural study (XRD) confirms the crystalline nature of prepared Ferric sulphide nanoparticles. The crystallite size was estimated and it was found to ~2.0 nm. The surface morphology of the Fe2S3 nanoparticles shows the agglomeration and is sponge and dried algae like structure. EDS analysis reveals the presence of Fe, S, O and C elements in the prepared Ferric sulphide nanoparticles. FTIR spectrum of Ferric sulphide shows the characteristic peaks that confirms the presence of Fe and S in the sample. Moreover, the plant growth study proves that Ferric sulphide nanoparticles could be used as a fertilizer to enhance the agricultural production.</p> Pavithra N Shiva Subramani M Balaganesh A S RanjitKumar R Dinesh K P B Chandar Shekar B Copyright (c) 2020-04-15 2020-04-15 7 1 35 38 10.26524/krj.2020.6 Screening of osmotolerant micro organisms in the dried salted fish sold in kanyakumari district, tamilnadu https://krjournal.com/index.php/krj/article/view/418 <p>Fish is one of the most important sources of animal protein available in the tropics and has been widely accepted as a good source of protein and other elements for the maintenance of healthy body. Salting and drying is an ancient and simple method to preserve fish and in India about 17% of the total catch is being<br>used for salting and drying. The present investigation was aimed to analyse the presence of osmotolerant microbes in the dry fishes. The commercially important marine edible salted dry fishes were collected from the study area Pallam. Four common edible dry fishes like (Nethili, Sardines, Ribbon fish and Prawn) were<br>selected for the screening of microbial population. The highest TFC value was reported in Sardine and Ribbon fish (5103) than the other fishes like Netthili and Prawn (4103 and 2103). The moisture content was higher (45%) in Prawn followed by Ribbon fish (40%), Sardines (29%), Netthili (26%). In this study,Prawn had high moisture content (45%) and high microbial load (5.3104 cfu/g). Total five fungal species were isolated from the selected dried fishes. The result of isolation of human pathogens such as Salmonella and Vibrio identified from the selected dry fish samples. The nutritive value of raw fish in found to be good.The sensory characteristics such as colour, odor, texture, insect infestation showed that the Sardine and Prawn was good in quality, while the netthili had decreased the quality. The study showed that salted and sundried fishes sold in study area are contaminated with pathogenic bacteria and fungal agents. Spoilage of<br>dried fish products was found and this might be due to unhygienic handling of the fisher folks, improper processing and unhygienic vendors and vending areas.</p> Mary Kensa V Anju M Copyright (c) 2020-04-15 2020-04-15 7 1 39 49 10.26524/krj.2020.7 Performance routing with shortest path exploration in wireless mesh networks https://krjournal.com/index.php/krj/article/view/419 <p>In wireless mesh network the nodes are dynamically self-organized and self- configured networks create a changing topology and keep a mesh connectivity to offer Internet access to the users. The shortest path problem is one of the most fundamental problems in networking. This problem can be solved by many<br>techniques and algorithm. In this paper we find the shortest path by using the fittest nodes in the network. By using the fittest node we can send the packets to the destination without packet loss, delay in packets.Average end to end delay is decreased by increasing bandwidth and the results are shown.</p> Kumaravel k Sengaliappan M Copyright (c) 2020-04-15 2020-04-15 7 1 50 53 10.26524/krj.2020.8 Evaluate the association of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in some medicinal plants grown in noyal river bed, tiruppur district, tamil nadu https://krjournal.com/index.php/krj/article/view/420 <p>To evaluate the rhizosphere soils and ten medicinal herbs polluted soils were tested for the association of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and determined the impact of the physico chemical factors in relation to the quantitative and qualitative assessment of AM fungi in polluted soils. Forty species of AMF belonging to five genera such as Glomus, Acaulospora, Gigaspora, Sclerocystis and Scutellospora were recorded and identified. Glomus fistulosum was noticed as the moist dominant in the polluted. In the non-polluted soils,all the plant species were colonized with AM fungi. Where as in polluted soils, eight herb species only were colonized and the percentage of root colonization was less.</p> Venkatachalapathi A Abdul Kaffoor H Nagarajan N Copyright (c) 2020-04-15 2020-04-15 7 1 54 62 10.26524/krj.2020.9 Kinetic studies of partially purified lipase from marine actinomycete streptomyces acrimycini ngp 1 https://krjournal.com/index.php/krj/article/view/421 <p>This study was focused on partial purification and characterization of lipase from Streptomyces acrimyciniNGP 1, isolated from marine sediment of south Indian coastal region. In purification steps, 4.53 fold purification was achieved after 85% ammonium sulphate precipitation with 0.97 percent recovery. In further purification steps, 1.33 fold purification was achieved by Sephadex G-100 chromatography with 1.61 percent of recovery. The specific activity of purified enzyme was 1525 U/mg. Zymogram of crude enzyme on native-PAGE presented bands with lipase activity of molecular weight and Isoelectric point were 50 kDa and 7.4 respectively. These features render this lipase of interest as a biocatalyst for applications such as biodiesel production and detergent formulations.</p> Vishnupriya B Anbarasi G Copyright (c) 2020-04-15 2020-04-15 7 1 63 68 10.26524/krj.2020.10 Effects of artificial photoperiod on the body colouration in the ornamental fish poecilia sphenops https://krjournal.com/index.php/krj/article/view/422 <p>In Orange balloon Molly, Poecilia sphenops, the development of chronic stress due to continuous exposure to artificial LED lighting irrespective to photoperiod causes deterioration in the body colour even in the presence of carotenoid rich green water and artificial feed with added additives in the experimental fish<br>tank setup. In the present study, the effects of continuous exposure to lighting and its consecutive development of chronic stress causes the body colouration to fade off in the freshwater ornamental live bearer, Poecilia sphenops, though the fishes were provided with colour enhancing as well as stress relieving<br>factors. Several trials showed that, whatever may be the colour enhancing agents provided, artificial lighting for long exposure irrelevant to the normal photoperiod remains as a strong anti-colouration as well as stress inducing factor and remains unaffected to any antagonistic factors. To conclude photoperiod is an essential<br>factor to be concerned for colour enhancement in Poecilia sphenops.</p> Moghan Prasad K M Velmurugan K Copyright (c) 2020-04-15 2020-04-15 7 1 69 75 10.26524/krj.2020.11 On r - dynamic vertex coloring of some graphs https://krjournal.com/index.php/krj/article/view/423 <p><img src="/public/site/images/babu/An_r_-_dynamic_is_an_proper_vertex1.gif"></p> Gomathi C S Mohanapriya N Copyright (c) 2020-04-15 2020-04-15 7 1 76 81 10.26524/krj.2020.12 On r - dynamic coloring of some graphs https://krjournal.com/index.php/krj/article/view/424 <p><img src="/public/site/images/babu/Presentation11.gif"></p> Aparna V Mohanapriya N Copyright (c) 2020-04-15 2020-04-15 7 1 82 87 10.26524/krj.2020.13