Kongunadu Research Journal https://krjournal.com/index.php/krj <p style="text-align: justify;">Kongunadu Research Journal (KRJ) (ISSN No.: 2349-2694) aims to publish high-quality papers with a specific focus on learning within their specified focus that are accessible and of interest to educators, researchers and academicians. It is a scholarly online, open access, peer-reviewed, interdisciplinary journal focusing on theories, methods and applications in Mathematics, Biology, Science, Technology and other related fields. KRJ invites authors to submit original and unpublished work that communicates current research on these fields.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> eleyon en-US Kongunadu Research Journal 2349-2694 Evaluation of antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of cleome gynandra l. and assess its anticancer activity against in vitro cancer model https://krjournal.com/index.php/krj/article/view/555 <p><em>Cleome gynandra</em> Linn. is the native herb distributed at tropical and sub-tropical temperature. In this study, the antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer properties of the ethanolic extract of <em>Cleome gynandra</em> leaves were investigated also the anti-cancer activity was assessed against A549 lung cancer cell lines. The antioxidant activities were evaluated by 1,1‑diphenyl‑2‑picrylhydrazyl&nbsp; free radical scavenging activity. The IC<sub>50</sub> value of DPPH was ranged from 65.67 µg/ml for the leaf extract. The anti-microbial activity was showed against <em>Escherichia coli</em>, <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>, <em>Klebsiella pneumonia</em> and <em>Salomonella typhi</em>. The cytotoxic study was conducted and the results exhibited the strongest inhibitory activity against A549 lung cancer cell line as concentration dependent manner. The cytotoxic activity of the leaf extract was supported by the induction of apoptosis cell. The other assays to evaluate anticancer activity are DAPI (4,6 – diamminodino-2-phenylindole), PI (propidium iodide) and EtBr/AO (Ethidium bromide/acridine orange) staining methods. All the study results revealed the efficient anticancer activity of the ethanolic leaf extract of <em>Cleome gynandra </em>leaves<strong>. </strong>Thus, the herbal drug treatment might highly be recommended to treat effectively lung cancer cell line as an ideal choice or combinational therapy.</p> Abitharani J Sujith S Mithun K Rajan Benitta Soosan Thomas Viswanathan S Vadivelan G Copyright (c) 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 9 2 1 8 10.26524/krj.2022.13 Growth and reproduction of earthworm eudrilus eugeniae in murraya koenigii leaf litter https://krjournal.com/index.php/krj/article/view/556 <p>Reproduction potential of vermicomposting earthworm <em>Eudrilus eugeniae </em>using <em>Murraya koen</em><em>i</em><em>gii </em>leaf litter with cow dung and garden soil used as the mixed substrates. The growth and reproductive potential of earthworm <em>Eudrilus eugeniae</em> and the number of juveniles, cocoons and adults were higher in experimental setup T1 (100% cow dung alone). In curry leaf <em>Murraya koenigii </em>were suppressed the growth and reproduction of earthworm, it might be due to the higher concentration of chemical compounds Alpha-caryophyllene, 2-Phenyl-4-quinolinecarboxamide, Phenanthrene in the leaf and the physico chemical parameters were observed on the initial substrate, 45<sup>th</sup> day substrate and vermiwash. Compared to all experimental treatments the growth and reproduction potential of adult (21.82±2.17), juvenile (12.88±1.30) and cocoon (5.66±0.78) production increased in the T1 setup.</p> Deepa A Preethee S Saminathan K Kathireswari P Copyright (c) 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 9 2 9 16 10.26524/krj.2022.14 Determination of the effect of an aqueous seed extract of sesbania sesban (l) merr. on the levels of non-enzymic antioxidant status in experimental animals https://krjournal.com/index.php/krj/article/view/557 <p>This study investigates the effect of aqueous extract of seeds of <em>Sesbania Sesban</em> (L) Merr. on the levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants such as reduced glutathione and vitamin-C in different organs of experimental animals subjected to inflammation with a standard drug. The experimental animals were induced inflammation with administration of a standard inflammatory drug, Carrageenan and two different concentrations of plant extract viz.150mg/kg body weight and 300mg/kg body weight of experimental animals were administered through oral mode one hour prior to Carrageenan induction.&nbsp; After induction and treatment, the organs such as spleen, thymus and hind paw were removed and was evaluated to test the effect of plant extract on non-enzymatic antioxidant levels in two experimental group of animals from the homogenate sample. The values obtained showed the protective effect of the plant extract in enhancing the levels of both the antioxidants in a dose-dependent manner to a significant level.&nbsp;</p> Kathiravan S Shwetha V Kalava Copyright (c) 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 9 2 17 21 10.26524/krj.2022.15 On sombor index of m-shadow graph of some graphs https://krjournal.com/index.php/krj/article/view/558 <p>This new topological invariant is applied in the areas of chemical graph theory. In this paper we have obtained the Sombor index of <em>m−</em>shadow graphs of path graph <em>D<sub>m</sub></em>(<em>P<sub>n</sub></em>), cycle graph <em>D<sub>m</sub></em>(<em>C<sub>n</sub></em>), ladder graph <em>D<sub>m</sub></em>(<em>L<sub>n</sub></em>) and tadpole graph <em>D<sub>m</sub></em>(<em>T<sub>n,p</sub></em>). We have also concluded that, the Sombor index of m-shadow graph of any regular or finite connected graph <em>G </em>is <em>SO</em>(<em>G</em>)<em>m</em><sup>3</sup></p> Abirami K Mohanapriya N Copyright (c) 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 9 2 22 32 10.26524/krj.2022.16 Documentation of arboreal flora of nirmala college campus, coimbatore https://krjournal.com/index.php/krj/article/view/563 <p>The present study was carried to document the Arboreal Flora of Nirmala College Campus, Coimbatore. In the present documentation different tree species were identified ranging from small to large tree type in the college campus. Totally there are 37 different types of tree species belonging to 39 genera with 22 families of which 38 species are angiosperms, where only one species is represented as Gymnosperm. This documentation study will help in the identification of species with its traditional economic use, monitoring the tree species to evaluate the qualitative changes in the species and to know the phenology of various plants located in the campus for their proper utilization and conservation.</p> Kavi Malar S Saradha M Vimal Priya S Copyright (c) 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 9 2 33 38 10.26524/krj.2022.17 Phytochemical and antioxidant analysis in the aerial part of aerva javanica (burm. f.) schult. (amaranthaceae) https://krjournal.com/index.php/krj/article/view/575 <p>Plants are the important source for the discovery of new products of medicinal value for drug development. Secondary plant metabolites are chemical compounds produced by the plant cell, defending themselves from biotic and abiotic stress. The study aims about the qualitative and quantitative analysis of various phytochemicals present in the plant <em>Aerva javanica</em> (Burm.f.) Shult. (Amaranthaceae). The aerial part of the plant was extracted using hexane, chloroform and ethanol and screened for the presence of the secondary metabolites and <em>in vitro</em> antioxidant properties by standard procedures. The present study indicates the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, coumarins, glycosides, carbohydrates, proteins and amino acids. Further findings revealed that the ethanolic extract found to have more constituents in the terms of quantitative analysis and antioxidant activity showed highest radical scavenging activity when compared with other solvent extracts.</p> Kalai Selvi M Malini R P Betty T Vasini V Sumathi P Copyright (c) 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 9 2 39 44 10.26524/krj.2022.18 Documentation of medicinal plants in niramkaithakotta hills, kerala https://krjournal.com/index.php/krj/article/view/579 <p>The present study has been carried out in Niramkaitha kotta Hills, Vallikkunnu, Malappuram District, Kerala, India to document the current floristic composition, conservation status of the study area and medicinal properties of plants .An extensive and intensive floristic survey were undertaken during December 2020 - Feb 2021 in Niramkaitha kotta hills. The area was surveyed at every visit and periodical collection of plants made from each locality. Taxonomically a total number of 91 medicinal plant species of Angiosperms distributed belonging to 45 families and 4 species of pteridophytes has been recorded from the study area of Niramkaitha kotta Hills and listed in the. Out of this 91 species 87 families belongs to Dicotyledons and 4families belongs to Monocotyledons and four species were Pteridophytes. In the life form category of the enumerated plants the majority of the species were herbs (46 species) followed by shrubs (26 species), climber (9 species) and tree (10species). <em>Tridax procumbens</em> L. was the most abundant species when compared to other species in the study area. In the present study out of 91 species recorded two species namely <em>Gloriosa superba</em> L. and <em>Pterocarpus santalina</em> L. f are endangered, 24 species are least concern.</p> Devika Sukhadev Rekka Raja Nirubama Kumar Copyright (c) 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 9 2 45 59 10.26524/krj.2022.19 Potential of medicinal plants for curing human ailments in vellamalaipatti, madurai district, tamil nadu, india https://krjournal.com/index.php/krj/article/view/549 <p>&nbsp;In the Vellamalaipatti Village of the Madurai district, the current study was conducted to examine the potential of medicinal plants for treating a variety of human illnesses. The study focuses on 50 plant species from 32 families that are used to cure human and animal ailments. 86 human disorders are treated with fifty plant species. Utilizing a modified questionnaire method, details about the plants and their regional</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Vimal Priya S Karthika K Kavi Malar S J Yaazhini J Ramachandran B Copyright (c) 2023 Kongunadu Research Journal 2023-01-05 2023-01-05 9 2 60 67 10.26524/krj.2022.20 Phytochemical and antimicrobial investigations on the aerial plant parts of pergularia daemia forsk. (asclepiadaceae): a perennial twinning herb https://krjournal.com/index.php/krj/article/view/582 <p>Scientific investigations of medicinal plants have been initiated in many parts of our country because of their contribution to health care. The medicinal properties of plants are due to the presence of phytochemicals. The phytochemicals have anti-oxidant and anti-microbial properties. The resistance to antibiotics by bacteria is increasingly becoming a concern to public health. Currently used antibiotic agents fail to bring an end to many bacterial infections due to super-resistant strains. Medicinal plants represent a rich source of antimicrobial agents from which new drugs can be obtained. The phytochemical constituents of plants are desirable, not only for the discovery of therapeutic agents, but also because such information may be of value in disclosing new sources. The present study has been carried out on the phytochemical, anti- oxidant and anti-bacterial character of aerial plant parts of <em>Pergularia daemia</em>. The phytochemical result shows that the flavonoids, phenols and tannins were present abundantly in the Ethanolic extracts of aerial plant parts. Both total phenol and tannins are high in ethanolic extract. The antioxidant activity of the plant was done by using DPPH radical scavenging assay. The antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract of <em>Pergularia daemia </em>aerial plant parts was tested against <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae </em>and <em>Citrobacter freundii.</em></p> Anooj S M Betty T Malini R P Vasini V Sumathi P Copyright (c) 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 9 2 68 74 10.26524/krj.2022.21 Qualitative phytochemical screening and ftir spectroscopic analysis of mitracarpus hirtus leaf extracts https://krjournal.com/index.php/krj/article/view/585 <p>The present study aim is to analyze the phytochemicals present in <em>Mitracarpus hirtus</em> leaf extracts by using Qualitative phytochemical analysis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The leaf extracts were prepared using three different solvents. The phytochemical analysis Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis were performed using standard methods. The FTIR spectroscopic studies revealed different characteristic peak values with various functional groups present in the compounds of respective extracts. The FT-IR analysis shows the presence of different functional groups such as alcohols, phenols, alkanes, carboxylic acids, aldehydes, ketones, alkenes, primary amines, aromatics, esters, ethers, alkyl halides and aliphatic amine compounds, which showed major compounds present in the leaf extracts. The present study generated the FTIR spectrum profile for the medicinally important plant<em> Mitracarpus hirtus</em>. The present study provides evidences that different extracts of <em>Mitracarpus hirtus</em> leaf is useful to cure many serious diseases which remained still problematic and for further isolation of bioactive compounds from the plant which could be of interest for the development of the new drug.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Binoodha Remina C Vimal Priya Subramanian J Krishnamoorthy Karthika Copyright (c) 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 9 2 75 79 10.26524/krj.2022.22