Kongunadu Research Journal https://krjournal.com/index.php/krj <p style="text-align: justify;">Kongunadu Research Journal (KRJ) (ISSN No.: 2349-2694) aims to publish high-quality papers with a specific focus on learning within their specified focus that are accessible and of interest to educators, researchers and academicians. It is a scholarly online, open access, peer-reviewed, interdisciplinary journal focusing on theories, methods and applications in Mathematics, Biology, Science, Technology and other related fields. KRJ invites authors to submit original and unpublished work that communicates current research on these fields.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> eleyon en-US Kongunadu Research Journal 2349-2694 Diversity and distribution of ants (hymenoptera: formicidae) in katanchimalai region of coimbatore district, tamil nadu https://krjournal.com/index.php/krj/article/view/530 <p>The study examined the diversity of ants in the Kattanchimalai region, Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu, as there is no adequate information pertaining on ant diversity of this region. The present study was carried out during November 2020 to February 2021. We have sampled ants by employing intensive all out search method. The sampled specimens representing 35 species belonged to 12 genera and five subfamilies. The most diverse subfamily was Formicinae (4 genera with 16 species), followed by Myrmicinae (5 genera with 12 species), Pseudomyrmicinae (1 genera with 4 species) followed by Dolichoderinae (2 genera with 2 species). The smallest number of species belonged to the Ponerinae (1 genus with 1 species). Among the sampled genera, the highest number of species representation was <em>Camponotus </em>with 4 species. Few ant genera as <em>Crematogaster</em> and <em>Pheidole </em>of Myrmicinae, <em>Camponotus </em>of Formicinae and <em>Leptogenys</em> of Ponerinae were mostly found everywhere. Some genera viz<em>; Oecophylla</em>, <em>Anoplopsis, Paratrechina</em> of Formicinae subfamily and <em>Tetraponera</em> of Pseudomyrmicinae are represented by one species each.</p> Lekeshmanaswamy M Sornapriya J Copyright (c) 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 9 1 1 8 10.26524/krj.2022.1 Ethnomedicinal plants used by malayali tribals in yercaud hills, salem district, tamil nadu, india https://krjournal.com/index.php/krj/article/view/531 <p>The present study highlights the importance of some medicinal plants in the health care system of Malayali tribal community of Yercaud Hills, Salem district, Tamil Nadu, India. Ethnomedicinal information was collected from malayali tribes through personal interviews and group discussions with 8 randomly selected informants. Use value (UV), fidelity level (FL) and Informant Consensus factor (ICF) were determined.&nbsp; During the data collection 20 species distributed in 16 families for treating 44 different ailments. Ethnomedicinal plants like <em>Abrus pulchellus</em>, Wall, <em>Andrographis paniculata</em>, Wall.ex.Nees, <em>Asclepias curassavica</em>, L, <em>Asparagus racemosus</em>, Wild, <em>Azadirachta indica</em>, A. Juss, <em>Cassia fistula</em>, Linn, <em>Centella asiatica</em>, Urb, <em>Corallocarpus epigaeus</em>, Hook.f, <em>Curculigo orchioides</em>, Gaertn, <em>Emblica officinalis</em>, Gaerth,<em>Enicostemma littirale</em>, Blume, <em>Hemidesmus indicus</em>, R. Br, <em>Holarrhena pubescens</em> (Buch.Ham.) Wall.ex.G.Don, <em>Leucas aspera</em>, Spreng, <em>Mimosa pudica</em>, Linn, <em>Myrica esculenta</em>, Buch. Ham, <em>Pergularia daemia</em> (Forsk.) chiov, <em>Terminalia bellerica</em>, Roxb, <em>Terminalia chebula</em>, Retz and <em>Toddalia asiatica</em>, Lamk were documented during the study. UV of the encountered plant species ranged from 0.38 to 1.13. The uppermost FCI value is reported for Ejaculation of semen and Bone fracture.&nbsp; In the present investigation, the FL varied from 50 to 100%.</p> Rekha Raja Nirubama Kumar Moorthy Duraisamy Copyright (c) 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 9 1 9 21 10.26524/krj.2022.2 Nordhaus-gaddum inequalities for anti fuzzy graph https://krjournal.com/index.php/krj/article/view/532 <p>The objective of this paper is to finds the lower and upper bounds of Nordhaus-Gaddum inequalities of fuzzy chromatic number for anti-fuzzy graph. This paper analyzes the chromatic index of complementary anti fuzzy graphs in some cases. A theorem is proved for anti-fuzzy graph to be k-critical. Examples are provided to derive the vertex coloring of these graphs.</p> Kousalya P Ganesan V Sathya Seelan N Copyright (c) 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 9 1 22 26 10.26524/krj.2022.3 Depiction of societal evils in chetan bhgat’s revolution 2020 https://krjournal.com/index.php/krj/article/view/533 <p>This paper focuses on Chetan’s thoughts where he conveys in his writings that in a developing country youngsters are failing to get recognize Chetan bhagat the creative writer in the field of Indian English Literature has portrayed the mechanical life of youngsters in his novel Revolution 2020. The paper brings forth the empathetic life of youngsters and the political problems in a vivid manner. It shows the life of the protagonist and the burden faced by them by relatives and society.</p> Gobinath R Copyright (c) 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 9 1 27 29 10.26524/krj.2022.4 Phytochemical screening and ftir analysis of ethanolic stem extract of vincetoxicum subramanii (A.N.Henry) mave & liede https://krjournal.com/index.php/krj/article/view/534 <p>Medicinal plants have been used in the treatment of various diseases as they possess potential pharmacological activities including antineoplastic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesics, anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive, antidiarrheal and other activities. There is continuous and urgent need to discover new active biological compounds with diverse chemical structures and novel mechanism of action because there has been an alarming increase in the incidence of new and re-emerging infectious diseases. An active compound of the medicinal plant has become a promising acquaintance in the development of phytomedicine to combat various diseases or disorder. The present investigation was carried out to assess the qualitative phytochemical analysis of stem of <em>Vincetoxicum subramanii</em> The phytochemical screening of stem extracts revealed the presence of steroids, saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, phenolic compounds, tannins and terpenoids in ethanolic extracts. The major functional group present in this plant was determined by FTIR analysis showed the existence of functional groups such as alkanes, aromatic compound, aromatics, carboxylic acid, phenol, aromatics ester and alkene compounds.</p> Vimal Priya S Ruth Sylvia A C Karthika K Copyright (c) 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 9 1 30 37 10.26524/krj.2022.5 Molecular characterization and optimization of streptomyces albogriseolous NGP2 and its prospects on heavy metals degradation https://krjournal.com/index.php/krj/article/view/535 <p>The biosorbing ability of actinomycetes from the marine sediments of South Indian Coastal region, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India was examined and identified as <em>Streptomyces albogriseolous</em> NGP 2 (JX843531) by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The isolate showed the potential metal removing capacity by incubating it with various concentrations of heavy metals such as Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Chromium (Cr) and Cadmium (Cd). Simultaneously, various optimization properties such as pH, initial metal concentration and contact time were analyzed. The pH 7.0 was recorded as an optimum for the removal of Cr and Zn, for Cd and Cu it was recorded as 6.0. The biosorption of the heavy metals Cu and Zn by the strain was found to be highest and recorded as 92% and 90.6% respectively, while the lowest sorption was found for Cd (85 %) at 30 mg/l concentration. The effectiveness of the removal of heavy metals was best studied by Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. The regression Coefficients also significantly expressed in the removal process. The results revealed that the isolate has the potential capability for the removal of heavy metals.</p> Vishnupriya B Anbarasi G Manjudevi M Copyright (c) 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 9 1 38 46 10.26524/krj.2022.6 Screening of phytochemical constituents and quantitative estimation of total flavonoids and phenolic compounds of leafextracts of mitracarpus hirtus (rubiaceae) https://krjournal.com/index.php/krj/article/view/536 <p>Plants have the ability to synthesize mixtures of structurally diverse bio-active compound, with multiple and mutually potential therapeutic effects. The objective of the study is to cover the preliminary phytochemical screening of traditional medicinal plant <em>Mitracarpus hirtus </em>belonging to the family Rubiaceae. The preliminary screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, tannins, phenolics, glycosides, carbohydrates, proteins and amino acids. In quantitative estimation, among all the extracts, acetone extract exhibited the maximum amount of phenolics (40.26&nbsp;mg GAE/g extract), and it depicted the maximum quantity of flavonoids (84.43 mg RE /g extract) which explains that the plant must have valuable medicinal properties and so it can be explored.</p> Binoodha Remina C Vimal Priya S Karthika K Copyright (c) 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 9 1 47 52 10.26524/krj.2022.7 Survey and documentation of plant species in north coimbatore https://krjournal.com/index.php/krj/article/view/537 <p>Due to the civilization, the core environmental changes has been observed in city where still documentation of cultivated and wild species has yet to be done for future studies over the seasonal changes and study of relationship between human and plants in recent scenario. Based on this fundamental concept, the study area has been chosen for the documentation of plant species in north Coimbatore city area to accomplish the project. The planned study area comprises of Periyanaicken palayam, Annur, Karamadai, Sarcarsamakulam. There are hundred plant species documented in this floristic study. Out of which 62 are domesticated plants as ornamental or other consumption purposes and 37 are wild plants around the residing area. This analysis indicated that the documented plant species comes under 40 taxonomic families. Highest species found in the family Fabaceae (15), Apocyanaceae (7), Solanaceae (5), Malvaceae (5), Acanthaceae (5). It is also revealed that the documented domesticated plant species are with the high number of Tree habits (40%) whereas documented wild plant species are with the high number of Herb habits (46%) than other habits. Among which most of the plants are used for domestic consumption, ornamentation and few are medicine. In this survey, no rare status plants have been observed and the area is completely civilized and the land area around the residence has been highly influenced by human beings. The wild species documented in this area are herbaceous weed plants blooming at every rainy season. This study concluded that the wild plants are highly destroyed for various purposes and lead to have only herbaceous weeds around us. Hence the cultivation of trees and protection management has to be initiated to increase the green cover of the study area to regain the misty, moderate climate as the identity of Coimbatore. It will definitely improve the wild fauna lives of the area and other ecological services from vegetation.</p> Sneha V Monisha B Sridharan C Nandhini A Revathi P Copyright (c) 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 9 1 53 61 10.26524/krj.2022.8 Changes in polyphenolic contents and antioxidant potential of the leafy vegetable, talinum portulacifolium by moist heat cooking https://krjournal.com/index.php/krj/article/view/538 <p>In general, most of green leafy vegetables undergo a cooking process prior to consumption. This present study was carried out to investigate the effect of moist heat cooking treatments of the green leafy vegetable, <em>Talinum portulacifolium </em>on the total phenolic content and antioxidant potential using phosphomolybdenum reduction, DPPH, and ABTS radical scavenging activities. The total phenol and tannin contents were found maximum in the raw samples of the plant 78.25 and 33.84 mg GAE/g extract, respectively. The boiling and frying treatments significantly reduced the total phenolic and tannin contents in <em>T. portulacifolium</em>. In the antioxidant study, the raw sample of ethanol extract exhibited a strong antioxidant potential based on ABTS, DPPH, radical scavenging and phosphomolybdenum reduction assays. Further, the raw and processed powders were subjected to FTIR analysis and the functional groups of the components were separated based on their peaks. It could be concluded that boiling and frying treatments have a determining effect on the levels of phenolic content and antioxidant capacities of vegetables.</p> Syed Ali Akbar S I Aiswarya K Logasri B Sowndhararajan K Copyright (c) 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 9 1 62 70 10.26524/krj.2022.9 Wearable e-textile integrated sensors for detecting hyperkalemia and hypokalemia https://krjournal.com/index.php/krj/article/view/539 <p>Recent evolutions in wearable and personalized healthcare devices have led to the emergence of real-time monitoring of the physiological and metabolic status of human beings. Detection of disorders related to potassium levels including hyperkalemia and hypokalemia is very much challenging in the current scenario. Potassium imbalance leads to massive change in electrical activity of the body especially disturbs the function of the brain, heart, nerves, bone and muscles in hospitalized patients. Potassium loss is a major concern in disorders such as hyperhidrosis and Cystic Fibrosis. Hence the real-time monitoring of potassium levels in the hospitalized patients may provide information related to latent cardiac problems and also assist in the diagnosis of apparent life-threatening diseases. Comprehensively, the real-time monitoring of potassium concentrations may shed light on the electrolyte loss, dehydration status and also the other associated diseases. In this study, the correlation between the electrocardiogram (ECG) signals and the potassium levels can diagnose the potassium imbalance in a non-invasive manner. The novelty of our work is to develop a wearable E-textile integrated sensor for the detection of hyperkalemia and hypokalemia through ECG signal. The main advantage of this product is wearable and portable, and also ensures the patient safety and user friendly particularly for elderly and disabled patients and also for children.</p> Nageshwari Raja Maheswaran Easwaran Copyright (c) 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 9 1 71 76 10.26524/krj.2022.10 Antibacterial study of ZnO and Zn0.5Mg0.5O nanoparticles synthesized by co-precipitation method https://krjournal.com/index.php/krj/article/view/540 <p>In the present study, zinc oxide (ZnO) and magnesium doped zinc oxide (Zn<sub>0.5</sub>Mg<sub>0.5</sub>O) nanoparticles were synthesized by simple and cost-effective co-precipitation method. The synthesized materials were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) with Energy dispersive X-ray spectrum (EDAX). Finally, the effect of magnesium (Mg) doping on the structural, morphological and anti-bacterial property of ZnO nanoparticles was analyzed. From the XRD results, it was found that there was a formation of hexagonal structured ZnO and the average crystallite size of ZnO and Zn0.5Mg0.5O was calculated to be 71 nm and 36 nm respectively. The FTIR analysis confirmed the existence of possible functional groups in ZnO and Zn<sub>0.5</sub>Mg<sub>0.5</sub>O. There was formation of almost spherical shaped particles as evident from FESEM images and agglomeration of particles was observed upon doping Mg into ZnO. The EDAX spectra of the prepared nanoparticles provided the composition of Zn, O in ZnO and Zn, Mg, O in Zn<sub>0.5</sub>Mg<sub>0.5</sub>O. No other elements have been found in the EDAX spectra of ZnO and Zn<sub>0.5</sub>Mg<sub>0.5</sub>O that confirmed the formation of pure materials. Finally the anti-bacterial study demonstrated that ZnO and Zn<sub>0.5</sub>Mg<sub>0.5</sub>O was effective in inhibiting <em>E. coli</em> bacteria.</p> Swathi T Nithya V D Copyright (c) 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 9 1 77 82 10.26524/krj.2022.11 Isolation and screening of keratinse producing bacteria from chicken farm bed https://krjournal.com/index.php/krj/article/view/541 <p>Currently, there are about 195 nations in the world, with a population of 7.8 billion. This much higher the population directly influences higher food demand. Due to this interlink massive amount of food waste has been collected from the meat industries; especially poultry plays a major role by discharging feathers into dumps. There are about 8.5 billion tons of feathers that are wasted every year which lead to high global environmental risk and cause different human disease. This high risk is due to typical structure of feather. They have a matrix protein called keratin that makes degradation more tedious under normal condition; they are insoluble in nature with high rigidity due to the disulfide bridges. By extraction of keratin from these waste feathers are used for multipurpose such as cosmetics, biomedical, textile use, bio-fertilizers etc. In addition, as per trend by utilizing nature’s gift the microorganisms we can breakdown these matrix proteins easily. By this environmental friendly technique our works gets easier and are also cost effective. By consumption of keratin as substrate some microorganisms produce an extracellular enzyme called keratinase which has the ability to cleave the protein. The produced keratinase is a wealth out of waste which has wide biochemical properties and also used for waste water treatments. On whole the feather considers as waste is completely turned to verity of useful products ubiquitous like biodiesel, biofertilizer, biodegradable plastics, biofilms, skin, hair and other biomedical treatments.</p> Amrin A Anbarasi G Vishnupriya B Karthikeyan G Mahavigneshwari P Dharani V Sowndarya V Abdul Razzak, M I Vigneshwaran K Copyright (c) 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 9 1 83 90 10.26524/krj.2022.12